INFORMATION & INTERVIEW REQUESTS
§1004. Criminal use of electronic weapon
1.Except as provided in subsection 4, a person is guilty of criminal use of an electronic weapon if the person intentionally, knowingly or recklessly uses an electronic weapon upon any other person.
[ 2005, c. 264, §1 (NEW)]
2.As used in this section, "electronic weapon" means a portable device or weapon from which an electrical current, impulse, wave or beam may be directed, which current, impulse, wave or beam is designed to have a disabling effect upon human beings.
[ 2005, c. 264, §1 (NEW) ]
3.Criminal use of an electronic weapon is a Class D crime.
[ 2005, c. 264, §1 (NEW) ]
4.This section does not apply to the use of an electronic weapon by:
A. A law enforcement officer, corrections officer or corrections supervisor engaged in the performance of the law enforcement officers, corrections officers or corrections supervisor's public duty if the officer's or corrections supervisor's appointing authority has authorized such use of an electronic weapon; or [2005, c. 264, §1 (NEW).]
B. A person using deadly force when that use is for the purpose of:
(1) Defending that person or a 3rd person as authorized under section 108, subsection 2; or
(2) Defending that person's dwelling place as authorized under section 104, subsections 3 and 4. [2005, c. 264, §1 (NEW).]
[ 2005, c. 264, §1 (NEW) .]
2005, c. 264, §1 (NEW)
Data for this page extracted on 12/10/2008 02:05:35.
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2) Chapter 170 of the Acts of 2004
AN ACT RELATIVE TO THE POSSESSION OF
Whereas , The deferred operation of this act would tend to defeat its purpose, which is to authorize forthwith certain possession and use of electronic weapons, therefore it is hereby declared to be an emergency law, necessary for the immediate preservation of the public convenience.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in General Court assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:
SECTION 1. Chapter 140 of the General Laws is hereby amended by striking out section 131J, as appearing in the 2002 Official Edition, and inserting in place thereof the following section:-
Section 131J. No person shall possess a portable device or weapon from which an electrical current, impulse, wave or beam may be directed, which current, impulse, wave or beam is designed to incapacitate temporarily, injure or kill, except: (1) a federal, state or municipal law enforcement officer, or member of a special reaction team in a state prison or designated special operations or tactical team in a county correctional facility, acting in the discharge of his official duties who has completed a training course approved by the secretary of public safety in the use of such a device or weapon designed to incapacitate temporarily; or (2) a supplier of such devices or weapons designed to incapacitate temporarily, if possession of the device or weapon is necessary to the supply or sale of the device or weapon within the scope of such sale or supply enterprise. No person shall sell or offer for sale such device or weapon, except to federal, state or municipal law enforcement agencies. A device or weapon sold under this section shall include a mechanism for tracking the number of times the device or weapon has been fired. The secretary of public safety shall adopt regulations governing who may sell or offer to sell such devices or weapons in the commonwealth and governing law enforcement training on the appropriate use of portable electrical weapons.
Whoever violates this section shall be punished by a fine of not less than $500 nor more than $1,000 or by imprisonment in the house of correction for not less than neither 6 months nor more than 2 1/2 years, or by both such fine and imprisonment. A law enforcement officer may arrest without a warrant any person whom he has probable cause to believe has violated this section.
SECTION 2. The secretary of public safety shall develop a uniform protocol directing state police and municipal police officers to collect data pursuant to this act. Such data shall include the number of times the device or weapon has been fired and the identifying characteristics, including the race and gender, of the individuals who have been fired upon. Not later than 1 year after the effective date of this act, the secretary of public safety shall transmit the necessary data to a university in the commonwealth with experience in the analysis of such data, for annual preparation of an analysis and report of its findings. The secretary shall forthwith transmit the university's annual report to the department of the attorney general, the department of state police, the Massachusetts Chiefs of Police Association, the executive office of public safety and the clerks of the House of Representatives and the senate.
Approved July 15, 2004
STATE OF MICHIGAN
REGULAR SESSION OF 2003
Introduced by Reps. Nofs, Gaffney, Stakoe, Garfield, Stahl, Wenke, Van Regenmorter, Robertson, Ruth Johnson, Rocca, Howell, Taub, Caswell, Richardville, Palsrok, Caul, Hune, Newell, DeRoche, Bisbee, Middaugh, Brandenburg, Acciavatti, LaJoy, Pastor, Casperson, Tabor, Drolet, Milosch, Bieda, Lipsey, Gieleghem, Meisner, Moolenaar and Ward.
100 Points of Proof
USP # 6,488,617 (December 3, 2002) Method and Device for Producing a Desired Brain State Katz, Bruce Abstract --- A method and device for the production of a desired brain state in an individual contain means for monitoring and analyzing the brain state while a set of one or more magnets produce fields that alter this state. A computational system alters various parameters of the magnetic fields in order to close the gap between the actual and desired brain state. This feedback process operates continuously until the gap is minimized and/or removed.
USP # 6,487,531 (November 26, 2002) Signal Injection Coupling into the Human Vocal Tract... Tosaya, Carol Abstract --- A means and method are provided for enhancing or replacing the natural excitation of the human vocal tract by artificial excitation means, wherein the artificially created acoustics present additional spectral, temporal, or phase data useful for (1) enhancing the machine recognition robustness of audible speech or (2) enabling more robust machine-recognition of relatively inaudible mouthed or whispered speech. The artificial excitation (a) may be arranged to be audible or inaudible, (b) may be designed to be non-interfering with another user's similar means, (c) may be used in one or both of a vocal content-enhancement mode or a complimentary vocal tract-probing mode, and/or (d) may be used for the recognition of audible or inaudible continuous speech or isolated spoken commands.
USP # 6,430,443 (August 6, 2002) Method and Apparatus for Treating Auditory Hallucinations Karell, Manuel Abstract --- Stimulating one or more vestibulocochlear nerves or cochlea or cochlear regions will treat, prevent and control auditory hallucinations.
USP # 6,426,919 (July 30, 2002) Portable and Hand-Held Device for Making Humanly Audible Sounds... Gerosa, William Abstract --- A portable and hand-held device for making humanly audible sounds responsive to the detecting of ultrasonic sounds. The device includes a hand-held housing and circuitry that is contained in the housing. The circuitry includes a microphone that receives the ultrasonic sound, a first low voltage audio power amplifier that strengthens the signal from the microphone, a second low voltage audio power amplifier that further strengthens the signal from the first low voltage audio power amplifier, a 7-stage ripple carry binary counter that lowers the frequency of the signal from the second low voltage audio power amplifier so as to be humanly audible, a third low voltage audio power amplifier that strengthens the signal from the 7-stage ripple carry binary counter, and a speaker that generates a humanly audible sound from the third low voltage audio power amplifier.
USP # 6,292,688 (September 18, 2001) Method and Apparatus for Analyzing Neurological Response to Emotion-Inducing Stimuli Patton, Richard Abstract --- A method of determining the extent of the emotional response of a test subject to stimului having a time-varying visual content, for example, an advertising presentation. The test subject is positioned to observe the presentation for a given duration, and a path of communication is established between the subject and a brain wave detector/analyzer. The intensity component of each of at least two different brain wave frequencies is measured during the exposure, and each frequency is associated with a particular emotion. While the subject views the presentation, periodic variations in the intensity component of the brain waves of each of the particular frequencies selected is measured. The change rates in the intensity at regular periods during the duration are also measured. The intensity change rates are then used to construct a graph of plural coordinate points, and these coordinate points graphically establish the composite emotional reaction of the subject as the presentation continues.
USP # 6,258,022 (July 10,2001) Behavior Modification Rose, John Abstract --- Behavior modification of a human subject takes place under hypnosis, when the subject is in a relaxed state. A machine plays back a video or audio recording, during which the subject is instructed to activate a device to create a perceptible stimulation which is linked, through the hypnosis, with a visualization of enhanced or improved performance. After the hypnosis, the user can reactivate the device at will, whenever the improved performance, such as an improved sporting performance, is desired. This will again create the perceptible stimulation and thus induce the required visualization.
USP # 6,239,705 (May 29,2001) Intra-Oral Electronic Tracking Device Glen, Jeffrey Abstract --- An improved stealthy, non-surgical, biocompatable electronic tracking device is provided in which a housing is placed intraorally. The housing contains microcircuitry. The microcircuitry comprises a receiver, a passive mode to active mode activator, a signal decoder for determining positional fix, a transmitter, an antenna, and a power supply. Optionally, an amplifier may be utilized to boost signal strength. The power supply energizes the receiver. Upon receiving a coded activating signal, the positional fix signal decoder is energized, determining a positional fix. The transmitter subsequently transmits through the antenna a position locating signal to be received by a remote locator. In another embodiment of the present invention, the microcircuitry comprises a receiver, a passive mode to active mode activator, a transmitter, an antenna and a power supply. Optionally, an amplifier may be utilized to boost signal strength. The power supply energizes the receiver. Upon receiving a coded activating signal, the transmitter is energized. The transmitter subsequently transmits through the antenna a homing signal to be received by a remote locator.
USP # 6,167,304 (December 26, 2000) Pulse Variability in Electric Field Manipulation of Nervous Systems Loos, Hendricus Abstract --- Apparatus and method for manipulating the nervous system of a subject by applying to the skin a pulsing external electric field which, although too weak to cause classical nerve stimulation, modulates the normal spontaneous spiking patterns of certain kinds of afferent nerves. For certain pulse frequencies the electric field stimulation can excite in the nervous system resonances with observable physiological consequences. Pulse variability is introduced for the purpose of thwarting habituation of the nervous system to the repetitive stimulation, or to alleviate the need for precise tuning to a resonance frequency, or to control pathological oscillatory neural activities such as tremors or seizures. Pulse generators with stochastic and deterministic pulse variability are disclosed, and the output of an effective generator of the latter type is characterized.
USP # 6,135,944 (October 24, 2000) Method of Inducing Harmonious States of Being Bowman, Gerard D., et al. Abstract --- A method of inducing harmonious states of being using vibrational stimuli, preferably sound, comprised of a multitude of frequencies expressing a specific pattern of relationship. Two base signals are modulated by a set of ratios to generate a plurality of harmonics. The harmonics are combined to form a "fractal" arrangement.
USP # 6,122,322 (September 19, 2000) Subliminal Message Protection Jandel, Magnus Abstract --- The present invention relates to a method and to a system for detecting a first context change between two frames. When a second context change between a further two frames occurs within a predetermined time interval, the frames accommodated within the two context changes are defined as a subliminal message. An alarm is sent to an observer upon detection of a subliminal message.
USP # 6,091,994 (July 18, 2000) Pulsative Manipulation of Nervous Systems Loos, Hendricus Abstract --- Method and apparatus for manipulating the nervous system by imparting subliminal pulsative cooling to the subject's skin at a frequency that is suitable for the excitation of a sensory resonance. At present, two major sensory resonances are known, with frequencies near 1/2 Hz and 2.4 Hz. The 1/2 Hz sensory resonance causes relaxation, sleepiness, ptosis of the eyelids, a tonic smile, a "knot" in the stomach, or sexual excitement, depending on the precise frequency used. The 2.4 Hz resonance causes the slowing of certain cortical activities, and is characterized by a large increase of the time needed to silently count backward from 100 to 60, with the eyes closed. The invention can be used by the general public for inducing relaxation, sleep, or sexual excitement, and clinically for the control and perhaps a treatment of tremors, seizures, and autonomic system disorders such as panic attacks. Embodiments shown are a pulsed fan to impart subliminal cooling pulses to the subject's skin, and a silent device which induces periodically varying flow past the subject's skin, the flow being induced by pulsative rising warm air plumes that are caused by a thin resistive wire which is periodically heated by electric current pulses.
USP # 6,081,744 (June 27, 2000) Electric Fringe Field Generator for Manipulating Nervous Systems Loos, Hendricus Abstract --- Apparatus and method for manipulating the nervous system of a subject through afferent nerves, modulated by externally applied weak fluctuating electric fields, tuned to certain frequencies such as to excite a resonance in neural circuits. Depending on the frequency chosen, excitation of such resonances causes in a human subject relaxation, sleepiness, sexual excitement, or the slowing of certain cortical processes. The electric field used for stimulation of the subject is induced by a pair of field electrodes charged to opposite polarity and placed such that the subject is entirely outside the space between the field electrodes. Such configuration allows for very compact devices where the field electrodes and a battery-powered voltage generator are contained in a small casing, such as a powder box. The stimulation by the weak external electric field relies on frequency modulation of spontaneous spiking patterns of afferent nerves. The method and apparatus can be used by the general public as an aid to relaxation, sleep, or arousal, and clinically for the control and perhaps the treatment of tremors and seizures, and disorders of the autonomic nervous system, such as panic attacks.
USP # 6,052,336 (April 18, 2000) Apparatus and Method of Broadcasting Audible Sound Using Ultrasonic Sound as a Carrier Lowrey, Austin, III Abstract --- An ultrasonic sound source broadcasts an ultrasonic signal which is amplitude and/or frequency modulated with an information input signal originating from an information input source. If the signals are amplitude modulated, a square root function of the information input signal is produced prior to modulation. The modulated signal, which may be amplified, is then broadcast via a projector unit, whereupon an individual or group of individuals located in the broadcast region detect the audible sound.
USP # 6,039,688 (March 21, 2000) Therapeutic Behavior Modification Program, Compliance Monitoring and Feedback System Douglas, Peter, et al. Abstract --- A therapeutic behavior modification program, compliance monitoring and feedback system includes a server-based relational database and one or more microprocessors electronically coupled to the server. The system enables development of a therapeutic behavior modification program having a series of milestones for an individual to achieve lifestyle changes necessary to maintain his or her health or recover from ailments or medical procedures. The program may be modified by a physician or trained case advisor prior to implementation. The system monitors the individual's compliance with the program by prompting the individual to enter health-related data, correlating the individual's entered data with the milestones in the behavior modification program and generating compliance data indicative of the individual's progress toward achievement of the program milestones. The system also includes an integrated system of graphical system interfaces for motivating the individual to comply with the program. Through the interfaces, the individual can access the database to review the compliance data and obtain health information from a remote source such as selected sites on the Internet. The system also provides an electronic calendar integrated with the behavior modification program for signaling the individual to take action pursuant to the behavior modification program in which the calendar accesses the relational database and integrates requirements of the program with the individual's daily schedule, and an electronic journal for enabling the individual to enter personal health-related information into the system on a regular basis. In addition, the system includes an electronic meeting room for linking the individual to a plurality of other individuals having related behavior modification programs for facilitating group peer support sessions for compliance with the program. The system enables motivational media presentations to be made to the individuals in the electronic meeting room as part of the group support session to facilitate interactive group discussion about the presentations. The entire system is designed around a community of support motif including a graphical electronic navigator operable by the individual to control the microprocessor for accessing different parts of the system.
USP # 6,017,302 (January 25, 2000) Subliminal Acoustic Manipulation of Nervous Systems Loos, Hendricus Abstract --- In human subjects, sensory resonances can be excited by subliminal atmospheric acoustic pulses that are tuned to the resonance frequency. The 1/2 Hz sensory resonance affects the autonomic nervous system and may cause relaxation, drowsiness, or sexual excitement, depending on the precise acoustic frequency near 1/2 Hz used. The effects of the 2.5 Hz resonance include slowing of certain cortical processes, sleepiness, and disorientation. For these effects to occur, the acoustic intensity must lie in a certain deeply subliminal range. Suitable apparatus consists of a portable battery-powered source of weak subaudio acoustic radiation. The method and apparatus can be used by the general public as an aid to relaxation, sleep, or sexual arousal, and clinically for the control and perhaps treatment of insomnia, tremors, epileptic seizures, and anxiety disorders. There is further application as a nonlethal weapon that can be used in law enforcement standoff situations, for causing drowsiness and disorientation in targeted subjects. It is then preferable to use venting acoustic monopoles in the form of a device that inhales and exhales air with subaudio frequency.
USP # 6,011,991 (January 4, 2000) Communication System & Method Including Brain Wave Analysis... Mardirossian, Aris
Abstract --- A system and method for enabling human beings to communicate by way of their monitored brain activity. The brain activity of an individual is monitored and transmitted to a remote location (e.g. by satellite). At the remote location, the monitored brain activity is compared with pre-recorded normalized brain activity curves, waveforms, or patterns to determine if a match or substantial match is found. If such a match is found, then the computer at the remote location determines that the individual was attempting to communicate the word, phrase, or thought corresponding to the matched stored normalized signal.
USP # 6,006,188 (December 21, 1999) Speech Signal Processing for Determining Psychological or Physiological Characteristics... Bogdashevsky, Rostislav, et al. Abstract --- A speech-based system for assessing the psychological, physiological, or other characteristics of a test subject is described. The system includes a knowledge base that stores one or more speech models, where each speech model corresponds to a characteristic of a group of reference subjects. Signal processing circuitry, which may be implemented in hardware, software and/or firmware, compares the test speech parameters of a test subject with the speech models. In one embodiment, each speech model is represented by a statistical time-ordered series of frequency representations of the speech of the reference subjects. The speech model is independent of a priori knowledge of style parameters associated with the voice or speech. The system includes speech parameterization circuitry for generating the test parameters in response to the test subject's speech. This circuitry includes speech acquisition circuitry, which may be located remotely from the knowledge base. The system further includes output circuitry for outputting at least one indicator of a characteristic in response to the comparison performed by the signal processing circuitry. The characteristic may be time-varying, in which case the output circuitry outputs the characteristic in a time-varying manner. The output circuitry also may output a ranking of each output characteristic. In one embodiment, one or more characteristics may indicate the degree of sincerity of the test subject, where the degree of sincerity may vary with time. The system may also be employed to determine the effectiveness of treatment for a psychological or physiological disorder by comparing psychological or physiological characteristics, respectively, before and after treatment.
USP # 5,954,630 (September 21, 1999) FM Theta-Inducing Audible Sound... Masaki, Kazumi, et al. Abstract --- An audible sound of modulated wave where a very low-frequency wave of about 20 hertz or lower is superposed on an audio low-frequency wave effectively stimulates Fm theta in human brain waves to improve attention and concentration during mental tasks when auditorily administered. The audible sound is also effective in stimulation of human alpha wave when the very low-frequency wave lies within the range of about 2-10 hertz. Such audible sound is artificially obtainable by generating an electric signal which contains such a modulated wave, and transducing it into audible sound wave.
USP # 5,954,629 (September 21, 1999) Brain Wave Inducing System Yanagidaira, Masatoshi, et al. Abstract --- Sensors are provided for detecting brain waves of a user, and a band-pass filter is
provided for extracting a particular brain waves including an .alpha. wave included in a detected brain wave. The band-pass filter comprises a first band-pass filter having a narrow pass band, and a second band-pass filter having a wide pass band. One of the first and second band-pass filters is selected, and a stimulation signal is produced in dependency on an .alpha. wave extracted by a selected band-pass filter. In accordance with the stimulation signal, a stimulation light is emitted to the user in order to induce the user to relax or sleeping state.
USP # 5,935,054 (August 10, 1999) Magnetic Excitation of Sensory Resonances Loos, H. Abstract --- The invention pertains to influencing the nervous system of a subject by a weak externally applied magnetic field with a frequency near 1/2 Hz. In a range of amplitudes, such fields can excite the 1/2 sensory resonance, which is the physiological effect involved in "rocking the baby".
USP # 5,922,016 (July 13, 1999) Apparatus for Electric Stimulation of Auditory Nerves of a Human Being Wagner, Hermann Abstract --- Apparatus for electric stimulation and diagnostics of auditory nerves of a human being, e.g. for determination of sensation level (SL), most conformable level (MCL) and uncomfortable level (UCL) audibility curves, includes a stimulator detachably secured to a human being for sending a signal into a human ear, and an electrode placed within the human ear and electrically connected to the stimulator by an electric conductor for conducting the signals from the stimulator into the ear. A control unit is operatively connected to the stimulator for instructing the stimulator as to characteristics of the generated signals being transmitted to the ear.
USP # 5,868,103 (February 9, 1999) Method and Apparatus for Controlling an Animal Boyd, Randal Abstract --- An apparatus for controlling an animal wherein the animal receives a control stimulus of the release of a substance having an adverse effect upon the animal as a corrective measure. The apparatus includes a transmitter for producing a transmitted field, and a releasable collar for attaching to the neck of the animal. The collar includes a receiver for receiving the transmitted field and for producing a received signal, a control circuit for determining when the received signal indicates that the animal requires a corrective measure and for producing a control signal, a container for containing the substance having an adverse effect upon the animal, and a mechanism for releasing the substance from the container into the presence of the animal upon the production of the control signal by the control circuit. In use, the transmitter is set to produce the transmitted field and the collar is attached to the neck of the animal. As the animal moves about, the receiver in the collar receives the transmitted field and produces a received signal. The control circuit determines when the received signal indicates that the animal requires a corrective measure. A control signal is produced by the control circuit when the determination is made that the animal requires a corrective measure. Upon the production of the control signal, the substance having an adverse effect upon the animal is released from the container and into the presence of the animal.
USP # 5,784,124 (July 21, 1998) Supraliminal Method of Education... D'Alitalia, Joseph A., et al. Abstract --- A method of behavior modification involves having a patient view supraliminal video messages superimposed upon an underlying video presentation. The video messages incorporate messages wherein at least some of the messages link a desired modified behavior to positive feelings of the patient. A supraliminal message generator and superimposer iteratively selects individual messages for display from the sequence of messages, decompressing the messages as required, and places the selected messages in a buffer memory of a video generation device. A processor of the supraliminal message generator and superimposer then fades the selected message from an invisible level to a visible level on the video display, and then fades the selected message from the visible level back to the invisible level.
USP # 5,649,061 (July 15, 1997) Device and Method for Estimating a Mental Decision Smyth, Christopher Abstract --- A device and method for estimating a mental decision to select a visual cue from the viewer's eye fixation and corresponding single event evoked cerebral potential. The device comprises an eyetracker, an electronic biosignal processor and a digital computer. The eyetracker determines the instantaneous viewing direction from oculometric measurements and a head position and orientation sensor. The electronic processor continually estimates the cerebral electroencephalogramic potential from scalp surface measurements following corrections for electrooculogramic, electromyogramic and electrocardiogramic artifacts. The digital computer analyzes the viewing direction data for a fixation and then extracts the corresponding single event evoked cerebral potential. The fixation properties, such as duration, start and end pupil sizes, end state (saccade or blink) and gaze fixation count, and the parametric representation of the evoked potential are all inputs to an artificial neural network for outputting an estimate of the selection interest in the gaze point of regard. The artificial neural network is trained off-line prior to application to represent the mental decisions of the viewer. The device can be used to control computerized machinery from a video display by ocular gaze point of regard alone, by determining which visual cue the viewer is looking at and then using the estimation of the task-related selection as a selector switch.
USP # 5,644,363 (July 1, 1997) Apparatus for Superimposing Visual Subliminal Instructions on a Video Signal Mead, Talbert Abstract --- A subliminal video instructional device comprises circuitry for receiving an underlying video signal and presenting this signal to horizontal and vertical synchronization detection circuits, circuitry for generating a subliminal video message synchronized to the underlying video signal, and circuitry for adding the subliminal video message to the underlying video signal to create a combination video signal.
USP # 5,586,967 (December 24, 1996) Method & Recording for Producing Sounds and Messages to Achieve Alpha & Theta Brainwave States... Davis, Mark E.
Abstract --- A method and recording for the use in achieving alpha and theta brainwave states and effecting positive emotional states in humans, is provided which includes a medium having a musical composition thereon with an initial tempo decreasing to a final tempo and verbal phrases recorded in synchrony with the decreasing tempo.
USP # 5,562,597 (October 8, 1996) Method & Apparatus for Reducing Physiological Stress Van Dick, Robert C. Abstract --- Physiological stress in a human subject is treated by generating a weak electromagnetic field about a quartz crystal. The crystal is stimulated by applying electrical pulses of pulse widths between 0.1 and 50 microseconds each at a pulse repetition rate of between 0.5K and 10K pulses per second to a conductor positioned adjacent to the quartz crystal thereby generating a weak electromagnetic field. A subject is positioned within the weak electromagnetic field for a period of time sufficient to reduce stress.
USP # 5,551,879 (September 3, 1996) Dream State Teaching Machine Raynie, Arthur D. Abstract --- A device for enhancing lucidity in the dream state of an individual. The device includes electronic circuitry incorporated into a headband for the user to wear while sleeping. The circuitry includes a detector for fitting adjacent to the eye of the sleeping individual, for detecting Rapid Eye Movement (REM), which occurs during the dream state. The detector emits a signal that is evaluated by additional circuitry to determine whether or not REM sleep is occurring. If REM sleep is occurring, a signal is generated to operate a recorded, which typically plays prerecorded messages through the headphones engaging the ear of the sleeping individual.
USP # 5,539,705 (July 23, 1996) Ultrasonic Speech Translator and Communication System M. A. Akerman, M., et al. Abstract --- A wireless communication system, undetectable by radio-frequency methods, for converting audio signals, including human voice, to electronic signals in the ultrasonic frequency range, transmitting the ultrasonic signal by way of acoustic pressure waves across a carrier medium, including gases, liquids and solids, and reconverting the ultrasonic acoustic pressure waves back to the original audio signal. This invention was made with government support under Contract DE-ACO5-840R2l400, awarded by the US Department of Energy to Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
USP # 5,507,291 (April 16, 1996) Method & Apparatus for Remotely Determining Information as to Person's Emotional State ~ Stirbl, et al. Abstract --- In a method for remotely determining information relating to a person's emotional state, an waveform energy having a predetermined frequency and a predetermined intensity is generated and wirelessly transmitted towards a remotely located subject. Waveform energy emitted from the subject is detected and automatically analyzed to derive information relating to the individual's emotional state. Physiological or physical parameters of blood pressure, pulserate, pupil size, respiration rate and perspiration level are measured and compared with reference values to provide information utilizable in evaluating interviewee's responses or possibly criminal intent in security sensitive areas.
USP # 5,522,386 (June 4, 1996) Apparatus for Determination of the Condition of the Vegetative Part of the Nervous System Lerner, Eduard Abstract --- Apparatus for use in the determination of the condition of the vegetative part of the nervous system and/or of sensory functions of an organism, i.e. a human being or animal. The apparatus comprises devices for generating and supplying to said organism at least one sensory stimulus chosen from a group of sensory stimuli, such as visual, sound, olfactory, gustatory, tactile or pain stimuli, and devices for measuring the skin potential and the evoked response of the organism to a stimulus. The measured data are processed by processing devices for automatically controlling the supply of at least one stimulus for providing a non-rhythmical sequence of stimuli. Preferably, pairs of stimuli are supplied for developing a conditioned reflex.
USP # 5,480,374 (January 2, 1996) Method and Apparatus for Reducing Physiological Stress Van Dick, Robert Abstract --- Physiological stress in a human subject is treated by generating a weak electromagnetic field about a grounded electrode by the application of pulses of between 5 and 50 microseconds each at a pulse rate of between 0.5K and 10K pulses per second to a power electrode, the power electrode and grounded electrode being coupled to high voltage pulse generation means. A subject is positioned within the weak electromagnetic field for a period of time sufficient to cause an increase in his or her alpha or theta brain wave levels.
USP # 5,479,941 (January 2, 1996) Device for Inducing Altered States of Consciousness Harner, Michael Abstract --- A rotating device for producing altered states of consciousness in a subject is provided. The subject's body rotates about a point in the center of the body support means at a speed between about 10 and about 60 revolutions per minute. In a preferred embodiment the direction of rotation is periodically reversed.
USP # 5,392,788 (February 28, 1995) Method and Device for Interpreting Concepts and Conceptual Thought... Hudspeth, William J. Abstract --- A system for acquisition and decoding of EP and SP signals is provided which comprises a transducer for presenting stimuli to a subject, EEG transducers for recording brainwave signals from the subject, a computer for controlling and synchronizing stimuli presented to the subject and for concurrently recording brainwave signals, and either interpreting signals using a model for conceptual perceptional and emotional thought to correspond EEG signals to thought of the subject or comparing signals to normative EEG signals from a normative population to diagnose and locate the origin of brain dysfunctional underlying perception, conception, and emotion.
USP # 5,356,368 (October 18, 1994) Method & Apparatus for Inducing Desired States of Consciousness Monroe, Robert E. Abstract --- Improved methods and apparatus for entraining human brain patterns, employing frequency following response (FFR) techniques, facilitate attainment of desired states of consciousness. In one embodiment, a plurality of electroencephalogram (EEG) waveforms, characteristic of a given state of consciousness, are combined to yield an EEG waveform to which subjects may be susceptible more readily. In another embodiment, sleep patterns are reproduced based on observed brain patterns during portions of a sleep cycle; entrainment principles are applied to induce sleep. In yet another embodiment, entrainment principles are applied in the work environment, to induce and maintain a desired level of consciousness. A portable device also is described.
USP # 5,352,181 (October 4, 1994) Method & Recording for Producing Sounds and Messages... Davis, Mark E. Abstract --- A method and recording for use in achieving Alpha and Theta brain wave states and effecting positive emotional states in humans to enhance learning and self-improvement, is provided which includes a medium having a musical composition recorded thereon with an initial tempo decreasing to a final tempo and verbal phrases, comprising between approximately 4 and approximately 8 words, recorded in synchrony with the decreasing initial tempo.
USP # 5,330,414 (July 19, 1994) Brain Wave Inducing Apparatus Yasushi, Mitsuo Abstract --- A random signal generator outputs a random noise signal to a band pass filter which selectively passes frequency components in the frequency range of a desired brain wave from a subject. The output of the band pass filter is supplied to an automatic level controller. The automatic level controller sets the output of band pass filter to a predetermined amplitude. Then, the output of the automatic level controller is fed to a stimulating light generator, which converts the output of the automatic level controller into a light signal for stimulating the subject in order to induce the desired brain wave from the subject. The light signal is then emitted into the subject's eyes.
USP # 5,289,438 (February 22, 1994) Method & System for Altering Consciousness Gall, James Abstract --- A system for altering the states of human consciousness involves the simultaneous application of multiple stimuli, preferable sounds, having differing frequencies and wave forms. The relationship between the frequencies of the several stimuli is exhibited by the equation g = 2.sup.n/4 .multidot.f where: f = frequency of one stimulus; g = frequency of the other stimuli or stimulus; and n = a positive or negative integer which is different for each other stimulus.
USP # 5,245,666 (September 14, 1993) Personal Subliminal Messaging System Mikell, Bruce T.
Abstract --- A personal subliminal messaging system includes a wide range linear subliminal modulator (43), a digital audio recording or play device (46), a microphone (51) to pick up the sound at the ear, and an earpiece (50) to deliver the subliminal message. The sound level at the user's ear is detected and measured. After risetime and decay conditioning of the varying dc control signal, the wide range linear modulator (43) uses this signal to control the level of the message to the earpiece (50). The user adjusts the system for a liminal of a subliminal level. The psychoacoustic phenomena of Post Masking is used to increase the integrity of the message in subliminal messaging systems.
USP # 5,270,800 (December 14, 1993) Subliminal Message Generator Sweet. Robert L. Abstract --- A combined subliminal and supraliminal message generator for use with a television receiver permits complete control of subliminal messages and their manner of presentation. A video synchronization detector enables a video display generator to generate a video message signal corresponding to a received alphanumeric text message in synchronism with a received television signal. A video mixer selects either the received video signal or the video message signal for output. The messages produced by the video message generator are user selectable via a keyboard input. A message memory stores a plurality of alphanumeric text messages specified by user commands for use as subliminal messages. This message memory preferably includes a read only memory storing predetermined sets of alphanumeric text messages directed to differing topics. The sets of predetermined alphanumeric text messages preferably include several positive affirmations directed to the left brain and an equal number of positive affirmations directed to the right brain that are alternately presented subliminally. The left brain messages are presented in a linear text mode, while the right brain messages are presented in a three dimensional perspective mode. The user can control the length and spacing of the subliminal presentations to accommodate differing conscious thresholds. Alternative embodiments include a combined cable television converter and subliminal message generator, a combine television receiver and subliminal message generator and a computer capable of presenting subliminal messages.
USP # 5,224,864 (July 6, 1993) Method of Recording and Reproducing Subliminal Signals that are 180 Degrees Out of Phase Woith, Blake F. Abstract --- A subliminal recording includes both subliminal message and mask signals applied to both tracks of a two track recording medium. The subliminal message signals are identical in content, and are recorded in an out-of-phase relationship. The mask signals are recorded in phase. The resulting recording may be utilized in the conventional manner for subliminal recordings. By combining the composite signals in an inverted relationship, the mask signals cancel while the subliminal message signals are additive, thus allowing the presence of the subliminal message signal to be confirmed on the recording.
USP # 5,221,962 (June 22, 1993) Subliminal Device having Manual Adjustment of Perception Level of Subliminal Messages Backus, Alan L., et al.
Abstract --- A method and apparatus for presenting subliminal visual and/or audio messages which allows user verification of message content and presence, as well as proper adjustment of message obviousness while accounting for ambient conditions and user sensitivities is disclosed. This method and apparatus also presents synchronized reinforced sensory input of subliminal messages. This is performed by simultaneously overlaying images received from a VCR over a plurality of television signals. This apparatus directs overlay images over RF television signals having both audio and video components.
USP # 5,215,468 (June 1, 1993) Method and Apparatus for Introducing Subliminal Changes to Audio Stimuli Lauffer, Martha A., et al. Abstract --- A method and apparatus for introducing gradual changes to an audio signal so that the changes are subliminal. The changes can involve tempo and volume, for example, and can take the form of a gentle gradient having ever increasing/decreasing ramp-like changes over a sufficient duration, or a more complex program involving several gentle gradients. In the preferred embodiment, an enhanced audio play-back device such as a portable audio cassette recorder can be programmed to subliminally alter the characteristics of a standard pre-recorded tape containing music, for example. As a motivational tool during walking, jogging or other repetitive exercise, the tempo is gradually increased over a period of time to encourage a corresponding gradual (and subliminal) increase in physical exertion by a user whose rate of movement is proportional to the tempo of the music. The tempo can be either manually changed in conjunction with a subliminal program, or by itself in an override mode, or by itself in a version of the present-inventive audio play-back device which allows only manual tempo alternation. In an alternate embodiment, a special pre-recorded tape contains subliminal changes in tempo, for example, for play-back on a standard audio cassette recorder (which operates at one speed, only) to cause the same effect as the preferred embodiment.
USP # 5,213,562 (May 25, 1993) Method of Inducing Mental, Emotional and Physical States of Consciousness... Monroe, Robert A. Abstract --- A method having applicability in replication of desired consciousness states; in the training of an individual to replicate such a state of consciousness without further audio stimulation; and in the transferring of such states from one human being to another through the imposition of one individual's EEG, superimposed on desired stereo signals, on another individual, by inducement of a binaural beat phenomenon.
USP # 5,194,008 (March 16, 1993) Subliminal Image Modulation Projection and Detection System and Method Mohan, William L., et al. Abstract --- Weapon training simulation system including a computer operated video display scene whereon is projected a plurality of visual targets. The computer controls the display scene and the targets, whether stationary or moving, and processes data of a point of aim sensor apparatus associated with a weapon operated by a trainee. The sensor apparatus is sensitive to non-visible or subliminal modulated areas having a controlled contrast of brightness between the target scene and the targets. The sensor apparatus locates a specific subliminal modulated area and the computer determines the location of a target image on the display scene with respect to the sensor apparatus.
USP # 5,175,571 (December 29, 1992) Glasses with Subliminal Message Tanefsky, Faye, et al. Abstract --- A pair of subliminal imaging spectacles is provided with a matched pair of visual subliminal images designed and placed so as to merge into one image due to the stereoscopic effect of human vision and thus to impart a subliminal message to the wearer.
USP # 5,170,381 (December 8, 1992) Method for Mixing Audio Subliminal Recordings Taylor, Eldon, et al. Abstract --- Audio subliminal recordings are made in which in addition to using a primary carrier, such as music, two audio channels are used to deliver subliminal messages to the brain. On one channel, accessing the left brain hemisphere, the message delivered is meaningfully spoken, forward-masked, permissive affirmations delivered in a round-robin manner by a male voice, a female voice and a child's voice. On the other channel, accessing the right brain, directive messages, in the same voices, are recorded in backward-masked (or meta-contrast). The three voices are recording in round-robin fashion with full echo reverberation. The audio tracks are mixed using a special processor which converts sound frequencies to electrical impulses and tracks the subliminal message to synchronize the subliminal message in stereo with the primary carrier. The processor maintains constant gain differential between the primary carrier and the subliminal verbiage and, with the subliminal verbiage being recorded with round-robin, full echo reverberation, ensures that none of a message is lost. The primary carrier should be continuous music without breaks or great differences in movements.
USP # 5,159,703 (October 27, 1992) Silent Subliminal Presentation System Lowery, Oliver Abstract --- A silent communications system in which nonaural carriers, in the very low or very high audio frequency range or in the adjacent ultrasonic frequency spectrum, are amplitude or frequency modulated with the desired intelligence and propagated acoustically or vibrationally, for inducement into the brain, typically through the use of loudspeakers, earphones or piezoelectric transducers.
USP # 5,151,080 (September 29, 1992) Method & Apparatus for Inducing & Establishing a Changed State of Consciousness Bick, Claus Abstract --- An electroacoustic device includes a sound generator as well as a system for producing synthetic human speech, connected to a modulation stage for superimposing the output signals thereof. The superimposed output signals are applied via an amplifier stage to one of a headphone system or loudspeaker system.
USP # 5,135,468 (August 4, 1992) Method & Apparatus of Varying the Brain State of a Person by Means of an Audio Signal
Meissner, Juergen P. Abstract --- A method of varying the brain state of a person includes the steps of supplying the first audio signal to one ear of the person, supplying a second audio signal to the other ear of the person, and substantially continuously varying the frequency of at least one of the first and second audio signals to vary the brain state of the person.
USP # 5,134,484 (July 28, 1992) Superimposing Method & Apparatus Useful for Subliminal Messages Willson, Joseph Abstract --- Data to be displayed is combined with a composite video signal. The data is stored in a memory in digital form. Each byte of the data is read out in sequential fashion to determine: the recurrence display rate of the data according to the frame sync pulses of the video signal; the location of the data within the video image according to the line sync pulses of the video signal; and the location of the data display within the video image according to the position information. Synchronization of the data with the video image is derived from the sync pulses of the composite video signal. A similar technique is employed to combine sound data with an audio signal. Data to be displayed may be presented as a subliminal message or may persist for a given time interval. The data may be derived from a variety of sources including a prerecorded or live video signal. The message may be a reminder message displayed upon a television screen to remind the viewer of an appointment. The data may be stored in a variety of different memory devices capable of high speed data retrieval. The data may be generated locally on-line or off-line and transferred to memory which stores the data necessary to create the message.
USP # 5,128,765 (July 7, 1992) System for Implementing the Synchronized Superimposition of Subliminal Signals Dingwall, Robert Abstract --- An apparatus and system for the controlled delivery of a subliminal video and/or audio message on to a source signal from a video tape player or similar. The source signal is divided into audio and video portions. A video processor reads sychronization information from the source signal. A controller transmits a stored subliminal image at designated times to a mixer amplifier fully synchronized with the source signal. Concurrently, an audio subliminal message is applied to the source audio at a volume level regulated at some fraction to the source audio. The combined signals are transmitted to a monitor for undistracted viewing.
USP # 5,123,899 (June 23, 1992) Method & System for Altering Consciousness Gall, James Abstract --- A system for altering the states of human consciousness involves the simultaneous application of multiple stimuli, preferable sounds, having differing frequencies and wave forms. The relationship between the frequencies of the several stimuli is exhibited by the equation g = s.sup.n/4 .multidot.f where: f = frequency of one stimulus; g = frequency of the other stimuli of stimulus; and n=a positive or negative integer which is different for each other stimulus.
USP # 5,052,401 (October 1, 1991) Sherwin, Gary Product Detector for a Steady Visual Evoked Potential Stimulator and Product Detector
Abstract --- An automated visual testing system is disclosed which presents an alternating steady state visual stimulus to a patient through an optical system that modifies the stimulus image. As the image changes, the patient produces evoked potentials that change. The evoked potentials are detected by a product detector which produces the amplitude of the evoked potentials. The product detector includes filters which isolate the patient's evoked potentials, a modulator which detects the response using the stimulus source frequency and a demodulator that determines the amplitude of the response. The product detector detects the level of the steady state evoked potential signals even in the presence of substantial background noise and extraneous electroencephalograhic signals. These detectors can be used to monitor the evoked potential produced by visual, aural or somatic steady state stimuli. The components described above can be used to produce a system that can determine to which of several different displays an observer is paying attention by providing images that blink at different frequencies and product detectors for each of the stimulus frequencies. The product detector producing the highest output indicates the display upon which the observer is focused.
USP # 5,047,994 (September 10, 1991) Supersonic Bone Conduction Hearing Aid and Method Lenhardt, Martin, et al. Abstract --- A supersonic bone conduction hearing aid that receives conventional audiometric frequencies and converts them to supersonic frequencies for connection to the human sensory system by vibration bone conduction. The hearing is believed to use channels of communications to the brain that are not normally used for hearing. These alternative channels do not deteriorate significantly with age as does the normal hearing channels. The supersonic bone conduction frequencies are discerned as frequencies in the audiometric range of frequencies.
USP # 5,036,858 (August 6, 1991) Method & Apparatus for Changing Brain Wave Frequency Carter, John L., et al. Abstract --- A method for changing brain wave frequency to a desired frequency determines a current brain wave frequency of a user, generates two frequencies with a frequency difference of a magnitude between that of the current actual brain wave frequency and the desired frequency but always within a predetermined range of the current actual brain wave frequency, and produces an output to the user corresponding to the two frequencies. One apparatus to accomplish the method has a computer processor, a computer memory, EEG electrodes along with an amplifier, a programmable timing generator responsive to the computer processor for generating the two frequencies, audio amplifiers and a beat frequency generator driving a visual frequency amplifier.
USP # 5,027,208 (June 25,1991) Therapeutic Subliminal Imaging System Dwyer, Jr., Joseph, et al. Abstract --- A therapeutic subliminal imaging system wherein a selected subliminal message is synchronized with and added to an existing video signal containing a supraliminal message. A television receiver or video recorder can be used to provide the supraliminal message and a video processing circuit varies the intensity of that perceptible message to incorporate one or more subliminal images.
USP # 5,017,143 (May 21, 1991) Method and Apparatus for Producing Subliminal Images Backus, Alan, et al. Abstract --- A method and apparatus to produce more effective visual subliminal communications. Graphic and/or text images, presented for durations of less than a video frame, at organized rhythmic intervals, the rhythmic intervals intended to affect user receptivity, moods or behavior. Subliminal graphic images having translucent visual values locally dependent on background values in order to maintain desired levels of visual contrast.
USP # 4,958,638 (September 25, 1990) Non-Contact Vital Signs Monitor Sharpe, Steven, et al. Abstract --- An apparatus for measuring simultaneous physiological parameters such as heart rate and respiration without physically connecting electrodes or other sensors to the body. A beam of frequency modulated continuous wave radio frequency energy is directed towards the body of a subject. The reflected signal contains phase information representing the movement of the surface of the body, from which respiration and heartbeat information can be obtained. The reflected phase modulated energy is received and demodulated by the apparatus using synchronous quadrature detection. The quadrature signals so obtained are then signal processed to obtain the heartbeat and respiratory information of interest.
USP # 4,924,744 (May 15, 1990) Apparatus for Generating Sound through Low Frequency and Noise Modulation Lenzen, Reiner Abstract --- In an apparatus for generating sound, there are provided a plurality of channels for generating sounds. Each of the channels includes a memory for storing waveform data, and at least one of the channels includes a noise generator so that various kinds of sounds including rhythm sound-effects sound, effects sound-vibrato etc. are generated. There is further provided a controller by which voice sound signal is passed through the channels so that artificial sound, voice sound etc. are generated. There is still further provided a circuit for adjusting an amplitude level of a whole sound which is obtained by mixing output sounds of the channels so that far and near sound is produced. Further, each of the channels includes left and right attenuators which divide a channel sound into left and right channel sounds. Still further, the apparatus comprises a low frequency oscillator for controlling a depth of frequency modulation, and a controller for writing sampling data of a predetermined waveform into serial addresses of a memory.
USP # 4,889,526 (December 26, 1989) Non-Invasive Method & Apparatus for Modulating Brain Signals... Rauscher, Elizabeth A. Abstract --- This invention incorporates the discovery of new principles which utilize magnetic and electric fields generated by time varying square wave currents of precise repetition, width, shape and magnitude to move through coils and cutaneously applied conductive eletrodes in order to stimulate the nervous system and reduce pain in humans. Timer means, adjustment means, and means to deliver current to the coils and conductive eletrodes are described, as well as a theoretical model of the process. The invention incorporates the concept of two cyclic expanding and collapsing magnetic fields which generate precise wave forms in conjunction with each other to create a beat frequency which in turn causes the ion flow in the nervous system of the human body to be efficiently moved along the nerve path where the locus of the pain exists to thereby reduce the pain. The wave forms are created either in one or more coils, one or more pairs of electrodes, or a combination of the two.
USP # 4,883,067 (November 28, 1989) Method & Apparatus for Translating the EEG into Music... Knispel, Joel, et al. Abstract --- A method and apparatus for applying a musical feedback signal to the human brain, or any other brain, to induce controllable psychological and physiological responses. A signal representing the ongoing electroencephalographic (EEG) signal of a brain preferably is obtained from the electrode location on the scalp known as CZ or P3 in clinical notation. A signal processor converts the ongoing EEG into electrical signals which are converted into music by synthesizers. The music is acoustically fed back to the brain after a time delay calculated to shift the phase of the feedback in order to reinforce specific or desired ongoing EEG activity from the scalp position of interest. The music is comprised of at least one voice that follows the moment-by-moment contour of the EEG in real time to reinforce the desired EEG activity. The music drives the brain into resonance with the music to provide a closed loop or physiological feedback effect. Preferably, the musical feedback comprises additional voices that embody psychoacoustic principles as well as provide the content and direction normally supplied by the therapist in conventional biofeedback. The invention contemplates numerous applications for the results obtained.
USP # 4,877,027 (October 31, 1989) Hearing System Brunkan, Wayne B. Abstract --- Sound is induced in the head of a person by radiating the head with microwaves in the range of 100 megahertz to 10,000 megahertz that are modulated with a particular waveform. The waveform consists of frewuency modulated bursts. each burst is made up of 10 to 20 uniformly spaced pulses grouped tightly together. the burst width is between 500 nanoseconds and 100 microseconds. The pulse width is in the range of 10 nanoseconds to 1 microsecond. The bursts are frequency modulated by the audio input to create the sensation of hearing in the person whose head is irradiated.
USP # 4,858,612 (August 22, 1989) Hearing Device Stocklin, Philip L. Abstract --- A method and apparatus for stimulation of hearing in mammals by introduction of a plurality of microwaves into the region of the auditory cortex is shown and secribed. A microphone is used to transform sound signals into eletrical signals which are in turn analyzed and processed to provide controls for generating a plurality of microwave signals at different frequencies. the multifrequency microwaves are then applied to the brain in the region of the auditory cortex. By this method sounds are perceived by the mamal which are representative of the original sound received by the microphone.
USP # 4,834,701 (May 30, 1989) Apparatus for Inducing Frequency Reduction in Brain Wave Masaki, Kazumi Abstract --- Frequency reduction in human brain wave is inducible by allowing human brain to perceive 4-16 hertz beat sound. Such beat sound can be easily produced with an apparatus, comprising at least one sound source generating a set of low-frequency signals different each other in frequency by 4-16 hertz. Electroencephalographic study revealed that the beat sound is effective to reduce beta-rhythm into alpha-rhythm, as well as to retain alpha-rhythm.
USP # 4,821,326 (April 11, 1989) Non-Audible Speech Generation Method & Apparatus MacLeod, Norman Abstract --- A non-audible speech generation apparatus adn method for producing non-audible seech signals which includes an ultasonic transducer or vibrator for projecting a series of glottal shaped ultrasonic pulses to the vocal track of a speaker. The glottal pulses, in the approximate frequency spectrum extending from 15 kilohertz to 105 kilohertz, contains harmonics of approximately 30 times the grequency of the acoustical harmonicsgenerated by the vocal cords, but which may nevertheless be amplitude modulated to produce non-auduble speech by the speaker's silently mouthing of words. The ultrasonic speech is then received by an ultasonic transducer disposed outside of the speaker's mouth and electronically communicated to a translation device which down converts the ultrasonics signals to corresponding signals in the audible frquency range and synthesizes the signals into artificial speech.
USP # 4,777,529 (October 11, 1988) Auditory Subliminal Programming System Schultz, Richard M., et al. Abstract --- An auditory subliminal programming system includes a subliminal message encoder that generates fixed frequency security tones and combines them with a subliminal message signal to produce an encoded subliminal message signal which is recorded on audio tape or the like. A corresponding subliminal decoder/mixer is connected as part of a user's conventional stereo system and receives as inputs an audio program selected by the user and the encoded subliminal message. The decoder/mixer filters the security tones, if present, from the subliminal message and combines the message signals with selected low frequency signals associated with enhanced relaxation and concentration to produce a composite auditory subliminal signal. The decoder/mixer combines the composite subliminal signal with the selected audio program signals to form composite signals only if it detects the presence of the security tones in the subliminal message signal. The decoder/mixer outputs the composite signal to the audio inputs of a conventional audio amplifier where it is amplified and broadcast by conventional audio speakers.
USP # 4,734,037 (March 29, 1988) Message Screen McClure, J. Patrick Abstract --- A transparent sheet is disclosed having a message thereon. The sheet has a first side adapted to be attached facing a plate which is normally viewed by a viewer and a second side facing the viewer. The message is arranged to be readably intelligible from the second side but is not liminally visible to the viewer when viewed from a normal viewing distance from the second side under normal viewing conditions. The message has a subliminal effect upon the viewer when viewed from the normal viewing distance from the second side under normal viewing conditions. A viewer can electively subject him or herself to subliminal messages while viewing television at leisure.
USP # 4,717,343 (January 5, 1988) Method of Changing a Person's Behavior Densky, Alan B. Abstract --- A method of conditioning a person's unconscious mind in order to effect a desired change in the person's behavior which does not require the services of a trained therapist. Instead the person to be treated views a program of video pictures appearing on a screen. The program as viewed by the person's unconscious mind acts to condition the person's thought patterns in a manner which alters that person's behavior in a positive way.
USP # 4,699,153 (October 13, 1987) System for Assessing Verbal Psychobiological Correlates Shevrin, Howard, et al. Abstract --- A system for assessing psychobiological conditions of a subject utilizes a plurality of words which are selected to be in four categories as critical stimuli. The words are presented by a tachistoscope to the subject in subliminal and supraliminal modes of operation. Subliminal stimulation of the subject is achieved by presenting the selected words for an exposure period of approximately one millisecond. The supraliminal exposure time is approximately thirty milliseconds. Prior to stimulation, the subject is diagnosed in accordance with conventional psychoanalytical techniques to establish the presence and nature of a pathological condition. The words are selected and categorized in four groups: pleasant words, unpleasant words, words related to a diagnosed conscious pathological condition, and words related to a diagnosed unconscious pathological condition. The brain wave responses which are evoked by the stimulation are collected via electrodes and analyzed in accordance with a transinformation technique which is based on information signal theory for establishing a probabilistic value which corresponds to the information content of the evoked responses.
USP # 4,692,118 (September 8, 1987) Video Subconscious Display Attachment Mould, Richard E. Abstract --- An apparatus and method for introducing messages to the subconscious mind is disclosed, which includes a panel positioned adjacent a television screen, with the panel having non-distractive messages imprinted thereon, such that as the subject consciously focuses his attention on the video screen, his subconscious mind records the message from the panel that is within his peripheral vision.
USP # 4,616,261 (October 7, 1986) Method & Apparatus for Generating Subliminal Visual Messages Crawford, James R., et al. Abstract --- A system for generating a subliminal message during the display of a normal television program on a television receiver utilizes a personal computer to generate an RF carrier modulated with video signals encoding the subliminal message. The computer runs under the control of an application program which stores the subliminal message and also controls the computer to cause it to generate timing signals that are provided to a single pole double-throw switch. The source of the normal television program and the video output of the computer are connected to the two switch inputs and the switch output is connected to the television receiver antenna system. The timing signals cause the switch to normally display the conventional television program and to periodically switch to the computer output to generate the subliminal message. The video output of the computer includes horizontal and vertical synchronizing signals which are of substantially the same frequency as the synchronizing signals incorporated within the normal program source but of an arbitrary phase.
USP # 4,573,449 (March 4, 1986) Method for Stimulating the Falling Asleep and/or Relaxing Behavior of a Person Warnke, Egon F. Abstract --- A method and apparatus is provided with which a person suffering from sleeplessness can be more easily relaxed and may more rapidly fall asleep. In particular, sound pulses are emitted by an electro-acoustic transducer, according to the cadence of which, the person seeking to fall asleep is induced to breathe in and out over a predetermined period of time. By suitably selecting the pulse sequence frequency, the pitch and the amplitude of the sound pulses may be adjusted thereby enhancing the process of falling asleep.
USP # 4,508,105 (April 2, 1985) Shadow Generating Apparatus Whitten, Glen, et al. Abstract --- Disclosed is an apparatus for inducing various brain wave patterns through visual stimulation. The apparatus comprises a pair of spectacles or other viewing apparatus having a liquid crystal display embedded in each lens. By repetitively activating and deactivating the liquid crystals, shadows are generated which are perceived by the subject individual wearing the viewing apparatus. Responding to the frequency of shadow generation, the subject's brain is thereby induced to generate sympathetic brain wave frequencies. The apparatus finds particular utility in the generation of alpha waves. Because learning is enhanced when the brain is in the alpha state, activities such as listening to tapes or lectures and the like can be carried out with greater facility. Shadow generation is accomplished through the use of a timing mechanism for each liquid crystal display and the frequency for each is adjustable over a wide range, permitting synchronous or asynchronous timing.
USP # 4,395,600 (July 26, 1983) Auditory Subliminal Message System & Method Lundy, Rene R., et al. Abstract --- Ambient audio signals from the customer shopping area within a store are sensed and fed to a signal processing circuit that produces a control signal which varies with variations in the amplitude of the sensed audio signals. A control circuit adjusts the amplitude of an auditory subliminal anti-shoplifting message to increase with increasing amplitudes of sensed audio signals and decrease with decreasing amplitudes of sensed audio signals. This amplitude controlled subliminal message may be mixed with background music and transmitted to the shopping area. To reduce distortion of the subliminal message, its amplitude is controlled to increase at a first rate slower than the rate of increase of the amplitude of ambient audio signals from the area. Also, the amplitude of the subliminal message is controlled to decrease at a second rate faster than the first rate with decreasing ambient audio signal amplitudes to minimize the possibility of the subliminal message becoming supraliminal upon rapid declines in ambient audio signal amplitudes in the area. A masking signal is provided with an amplitude which is also controlled in response to the amplitude of sensed ambient audio signals. This masking signal may be combined with the auditory subliminal message to provide a composite signal fed to, and controlled by, the control circuit.
USP # 4,388,918 (June 21, 1983) Mental Harmonization Process Filley, Charles C. Abstract --- A state of relaxation or mental harmonization in a subject is created by exposing a color solely to one field of vision of a subject and the complement of that color solely to the other field of vision of the subject while simultaneously exposing an audible tone solely to one ear of the subject and a harmonious tone solely to the other ear of the subject. The color and tones employed are subjectively comfortable and compatible. Preferably, the frequency difference between the two audible tones is one-half the frequency of the audible tone having the lowest frequency.
USP # 4,354,505 (October 19, 1982) Method of and Apparatus for Testing and Indicating Relaxation State of a Human Subject Shiga, Kazumasa Abstract --- In a self-training biofeedback system, a physiological signal representing the state of relaxation of a person using the system is applied to a time counter to generate a binary count output representing the relaxation period. A visual indicator connected to the time counter provides the self trained person with a quick display of the measured time period so he can gauge the depth of his relaxation.
USP # 4,335,710 (June 22, 1982) Device for the Induction of Specific Brain Wave Patterns Williamson, John Abstract --- Brain wave patterns associated with relaxd and meditative states in a subject are gradually induced without deleterious chemical or neurological side effects. A white noise generator (11) has the spectral noise density of its output signal modulated in a manner similar to the brain wave patterns by a switching transistor within a spetrum modulator and converted to an audio signal by acoustic transducer. Ramp generator gradually increases the voltage received by and resultant output frequency of voltage controlled oscillator whereby switching transistor periodically shunts the high frequency components of the white noise signal to ground.
USP # 4,315,501 (February 16, 1982) Learning-Relaxation Device Gorges, Denis E. Abstract --- Disclosed is a device for relaxing, stimulating and/or driving brain wave form function in a human subject. The device comprises, in combination, an eye mask having independently controlled left and right eyepieces and a peripheral light array in each eyepiece, an audio headset having independently controlled left and right earpieces and a control panel which controls light and sound signals to the light arrays and earpieces, respectively. Various control functions allow simultaneous or alternating light and sound pulsations in the left and right light arrays and earpieces, as well as selective phasing between light and sound pulsations.
USP # 4,227,516 (October 14, 1980) Apparatus for Electrophysiological Stimulation Meland, Bruce C., et al. Abstract --- Apparatus for the electrophysiological stimulation of a patient is provided for creating an analgesic condition in the patient to induce sleep, treat psychosomatic disorders, and to aid in the induction of electrohypnosis and altered states of consciousness. The foregoing is achieved by repetitive stimuli in the patient for whom external influences, namely those of sight and sound, are intentionally excluded. The apparatus produces electrical stimulation of the patient in the form of a modulated wave which produces impulses in the delta, theta, alpha and beta regions of the brain's electrical activity, the electrical stimulation being accompanied by two sources of audio stimulation, one of which is a sinusoidal tone modulated by and synchronized with the electrical stimulation, and the other is derived from sound recordings.
USP # 4,191,175 (March 4, 1980) Method & Apparatus for Repetitively Producing a Noise-like Audible Signal Nagle, William L. Abstract --- A digital pulse generator and shift register repetitively produce bursts of digital pulses at a first adjustable repetition frequency. The repetition frequency of the pulses in each burst is also adjustable. A pink noise filter accentuates the lower burst frequency components near 7 hz and substantially attenuates all frequency components of the bursts above a first cut-off point near 10 Khz. A tunable band pass amplifier having a center frequency adjustable over a preselected range of frequencies optimally detectable by the average human ear accentuates the pink noise filter output near 2.6 Khz. The tunable amplifier drives an audible signal source with noise-like pulses of varying amplitudes and frequency components. A low pass amplifier may be connected to the pink noise filter to generate a train of pulses having a repetition frequency near 7 hz which pulses a light source in synchronism with the audible noise-like signal.
USP # 4,141,344 (February 27, 1979) Sound Recording System Barbara, Louis J. Abstract --- In recording an audio program, such as music or voice, on a magnetic tape recorder an A.C. signal generator operating at a frequency below about 14 Hz provides an AC baseline for the audio program signal. This 14 Hz or lower AC signal is sensed by the listener's ear to create an Alpha or Theta state in his brain when the tape is played back.
USP # 4,082,918 (April 4, 1978) Audio Analgesic Unit Chang, Roland W., et al. Abstract --- An audio analgesic unit for use in masking sounds and substituting another sound which includes earmuffs to be used by a dental patient in which speakers are arranged and connected to a patient operated remote control unit to control the sound levels and a master control unit to override the patient remote control unit and operated by an operator, such as a dentist. A beeper indicates operation mode change.
USP # 4,034,741 (July 12, 1977) Noise Generator & Transmitter Adams, Guy E., et al. Abstract --- An analgesic noise generator employs a circuit that can be switched to provide a variable waveform from an active noise source out of an integrated circuit amplifier.
USP # 3,967,616 (July 6, 1976) Multichannel System for & Multifactorial Method of Controlling the Nervous System of a Living Organism Ross, Sidney A. Abstract --- A novel method for controlling the nervous system of a living organism for therapeutic and research purposes, among other applications, and an electronic system utilized in, and enabling the practice of, the invented method. Bioelectrical signals generated in specifictopological areas of the organism's nervous system, typically areas of the brain, are processed by the invented system so as to produce a sensory stimulus if the system detects the presence or absence, as the case may be, of certain characteristics in the waveform patterns of the bioelectrical signals being monitored. The coincidence of the same or different characteristics in two or more waveform patterns, or the non-coincidence thereof, may be correlated with a certain desired condition of the organism's nervous system; likewise, with respect to the coincidence or non-coincidence of different characteristics of a single waveform pattern. In any event, the sensory stimulus provided by the invented system, typically an audio or visual stimulus, or combination thereof, is fed back to the organism which associates its presence with the goal of achieving the desired condition of its nervous system. Responding to the stimulus, the organism can be trained to control the waveform patterns of the monitored bioelectrical signals and thereby, control its own nervous system. The results of the coincidence function permit results heretofore unobtainable.
USP # 3,951,134 (April 20, 1976) Apparatus & Method for Remotely Monitoring & Altering Brain Waves Malech, Robert G. Abstract --- Apparatus for and method of sensing brain waves at a position remote from a subject whereby electromagnetic signals of different frequencies are simultaneously transmitted to the brain of the subject in which the signals interfere with one another to yield a waveform which is modulated by the subject's brain waves. The interference waveform which is representative of the brain wave activity is re-transmitted by the brain to a receiver where it is demodulated and amplified. The demodulated waveform is then displayed for visual viewing and routed to a computer for further processing and analysis. The demodulated waveform also can be used to produce a compensating signal which is transmitted back to the brain to effect a desired change in electrical activity therein.
USP # 3,884,218 (May 20, 1975) Method of Inducing & Maintaining Various Stages of Sleep in the Human Being Monroe, Robert A.
Abstract --- A method of inducing sleep in a human being wherein an audio signal is generated comprising a familiar pleasing repetitive sound modulated by an EEG sleep pattern. The volume of the audio signal is adjusted to overcome the ambient noise and a subject can select a familiar repetitive sound most pleasing to himself.
USP # 3,837,331 (September 24, 1974) System & Method for Controlling the Nervous System of a Living Organism Ross, S. Abstract --- A novel method for controlling the nervous system of a living organism for therapeutic and research purposes, among other applications, and an electronic system utilized in, and enabling the practice of the invented method. Bioelectrical signals generated in specific topological areas of the organism's nervous system, typically areas of the brain, are processed by the invented system so as to produce an output signal which is in some way an analog of selected characteristics detected in the bioelectrical signal. The output of the system, typically an audio or visual signal, is fed back to the organism as a stimulus. Responding to the stimulus, the organism can be trained to control the waveform pattern of the bioelectrical signal generated in its own nervous system.
USP # 3,835,833 (September 17, 1974) Method for Obtaining Neurophysiological Effects Limoge, A. Abstract --- A method and apparatus for obtaining neurophysiological effects on the central and/or peripheral systems of a patient. Electrodes are suitably positioned on the body of the patient and a composite electric signal is applied at the electrodes. The composite signal is formed by the superpositioning of two signals: a first signal which is a rectified high-frequency carrier modulated in amplitude to about 100 percent by substantially square-shaped pulses whose duration, amplitude and frequency are chosen according to the neurophysiological effects desidered, and a second signal which has a relatively white noise spectrum. The mean value of the first electric signal has a predetermined sign which is opposite the sign of the mean value of the second electric signal.
USP # 3,773,049 (November 20, 1973) Apparatus for Treatment of Neuropsychic & Somatic Diseases with Heat, Light, Sound & VHF Electromagnetic Radiation L. Y. Rabichev, et al. Abstract --- N/A
USP # 3,766,331 (October 16, 1973) Hearing Aid for Producing Sensations in the Brain Zink, Henry R. Abstract --- A pulsed oscillator or transmitter supplies energy to a pair of insulated electrodes mounted on a person's neck. The transmitter produces pulses of intensity greater than a predetermined threshold value and of a width and rate so as to produce the sensation of hearing without use of the auditory canal, thereby producing a hearing system enabling otherwise deaf people to hear.
USP # 3,727,616 (March 17, 1973) Electronic System for Stimulation of Biological Systems Lenskes, H. Abstract --- A receiver totally implanted within a living body is inductively coupled by two associated receiving coils to a physically unattached external transmitter which transmits two signals of different frequencies to the receiver via two associated transmitting coils. One of the signals from the transmitter provides the implanted receiver with precise control or stimulating signals which are demodulated and processed in a signal processor network in the receiver and then used by the body for stimulation of a nerve, for example, while the other signal provides the receiver with a continuous wave power signal which is rectified in the receiver to provide a source of electrical operating power for the receiver circuitry without need for an implanted battery.
USP # 3,712,292 (January 23, 1973) Method & Apparatus for Producing Swept FM Audio Signal Patterns for Inducing Sleep Zentmeyer, J. Abstract --- A method of producing sound signals for inducing sleep in a human being, and apparatus therefor together with REPRESENTATIONS thereof in recorded form, wherein an audio signal is generated representing a familiar, pleasing, repetitive sound, modulated by continuously sweeping frequencies in two selected frequency ranges having the dominant frequencies which occur in electrical wave patterns of the human brain during certain states of sleep. The volume of the audio signal is adjusted to mask the ambient noise and the subject can select any of several familiar, repetitive sounds most pleasing to him.
USP # 3,647,970 (March 7, 1972) Method and System for Simplifying Speech Waveforms Flanagan, G. Patrick Abstract --- A complex speech waveform is simplified so that it can be transmitted directly through earth or water as a waveform and understood directly or after amplification.
USP # 3,629,521 (January 8, 1970) Hearing Systems Puharich, Henry K. Abstract --- The present invention relates to the stimulation of the sensation of hearing in persons of impaired hearing abilities or in certain cases persons totally deaf utilizing RF energy. More particularly, the present invention relates to a method and apparatus for imparting synchronous AF or ""acoustic" signals and so-called "transdermal" or RF signals. Hearing and improved speech discrimination, in accordance with one aspect of the present invention, is stimulated by the application of an AF acoustical signal to the "ear system" conventional biomechanism of hearing, which is delivered to the brain through the "normal" channels of hearing and a separate transdermal RF electrical signal which is applied to the "facial nerve system" and is detectable as a sensation of hearing. Vastly improved and enhanced hearing may be achieved...
USP # 3,576,185 (April 27, 1971) Sleep-Inducing Method & Arrangement using Modulated Sound & Light
Meseck, Oscar & Schulz, Hans R. Abstract --- N/A
USP # 3,568,347 (February 23, 1971) Psycho-Acoustic Projector Flanders, Andrew Abstract --- A system for producing aural psychological disturbances and partial deafness in the enemy during combat situations.
USP # 3,393,279 (July 16, 1968) Nervous System Excitation Device Flanagan, Giles P. Abstract --- A method of transmitting audio information via a radio frequency signal modulated with the audio info through electrodes placed on the subject's skin, causing the sensation of hearing the audio information in the brain.
USP # 3,170,993 (February 23, 1965) Means for Aiding Hearing by Electrical Stimulation of the Facial Nerve System Puharich, Henry & Lawrence, Joseph Abstract --- N/A
USP # 3,156,787 (November 10, 1964) Solid State Hearing System Lawrence, Joseph & Puharich, Henry Abstract --- N/A
USP # 2,995,633 (August 8, 1961) Means for Aiding Hearing Puharich, Henry & Lawrence, J.